Calmodulin, Porcine, Biotinylated

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Product Name
Calmodulin, Porcine, Biotinylated
100 µg
Catalog #
Isolated from Porcine brain and biotinylated using NHS ester activated biotin with a spacer of 8 atoms.
Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous, calcium-binding protein that binds and regulates a multitude of protein targets, many of which are involved in the Alzheimer's and the Parkinson's pathways1,4. CaM has a molecular weight of about 17kDa, containing 148 amino acids, and pI of 3.9. CaM is characterized by two domains, connected by an alpha-helix chain. Each domain has the capacity to bind two calcium ions. Binding Ca2+ ions causes a conformational change in CaM, making it available for interaction with target proteins. Hence, CaM functions as an intracellular calcium ion bridge to mediate cellular reactions and responds appropriately to calcium ion concentration. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), irregular calcium homeostasis seems to trigger CaM and its binding proteins, to enhance plaque formation and neurofibrillary degeneration, which results in cell death1. The increased cytosolic levels of Ca2+ in AD neurons promotes CaM binding and regulation of available Ca2+/CaM-dependent CaM-binding proteins, associated with amyloid beta (Ab) formation. In addition, the increased level of Ca2+ triggers Calmodulin to activate calcium/CaM-dependent kinase II and precede neurofibrillary tangle formation2,4. In Parkinson's disease (PD), Calmodulin has been found to interact, in a calcium dependent manner, with Alpha-Synuclein, which is associated with the progression of PD. CaM was identified as one of the synuclein-interacting proteins that regulate synuclein conformation3.
Molecular Mass
17,000 Da
>95% by SDS-PAGE stained with Coomassie blue having a single band at approximately 17 kDa.
Cost (US$)
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1) FM LaFerla. 2002, Nature Reviews Neurosci. 3: 862-872.
2) O'Day DH & Myre M., 2004, Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 320: 1051.
3) Martinez J., et al., 2003, J. of Biological Chemistry.278:17379.
4) Picconi B, et al., 2004, The J. of Neurosci. 24(23): 5283.